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TSGGML, Sieu lien ket, Duong dan, Link la gi?

Đọc bài có đánh dấu tiếng Việt tại đây: https://cttmmd.wordpress.com/2007/06/19/hypertext-tsggml-html-la-gi/

 

Hypertext la gi? TSGGML, HTML la gi?

Tony Minh Duy

Hyperlink la gi? Duong dan la gi? Sieu lien ket la gi? Lien ket la gi? Cau tra loi: tat ca deu nhu nhau, doc them duoi day.

Khi lam viec chuyen nghiep thi phai noi mot cach chuan xac. Co mot nhan vien thuc tap yeu cau toi huong dan cach “lam man hinh nhac”. Vi cum tu “man hinh” co nghia la mot thiet bi, toi khong hieu nguoi do muon gi. Sau mot thoi gian dai moi te ra la han muon hoc cach lap sieu lien ket dem hinh dong truyen hinh (video), vi du nhu cua YouTube, vao van ban (text). Muc dich cua bai viet nay la de giup nhung ai moi bat dau lam quen voi cong nghe web can phai biet cach dien dat y muon minh mot cach chuan xac khi yeu cau nguoi khac tro giup cho viec rieng chung cua minh.

Mot van kien chua thong tin, co the trong dang van ban hoac no chi chua hinh dong dang GIF hoac hinh dong truyen hinh (video) ma thoi. No thuong lien quan toi mot san pham co thuc qua viec viet bai va thuong la nham de truyen dat hoac luu tru cac bo suu tam du kien. Van kien thuong hay la tieu diem va quan tam cua viec hanh chinh.

Thuat ngu van kien co the duoc ap dung vao bat cu su dai dien y nghia roi rac nao, nhung no thuong noi ve mot cai gi do vat ly, huu hinh nhu la mot hoac nhieu trang duoc in ra, hoac noi ve mot tep, con goi la tep tin, tuc la mot van kien “ao” trong dang so hoa, dien tu.

Tep cung co y nghia nhu “tap tin” nhung ngan gon va kho lan lon voi “tap”. Neu khai niem co ban khong noi ngan gon duoc thi sau nay se kho dien dat khai niem cao sieu mot cach suc tich.

Xap la mot chong giay roi. Tap la mot chong giay duoc dong lai thanh mot don vi. Tep la mot tap ao. Ảo khong co nghia gi xau het nhung co nghia la: hien la nhu vay trong ban chat hoac tac dung du cho chua co chinh thuc cong nhan hoac thu nhan. Mot tep tin trong tri uc may tinh co the co ban chat va tac dung cua mot cuon sach mac du khong ai goi no la sach ma goi la sach ao.

Tham khao co nghia la di lay them thong tin, thuong la o trong tai lieu, nham tim hieu them de hoc hoi, nghien cuu, xu li cong viec cho tot hon. Khi tai lieu danh dau cho doc gia biet di dau o mot noi khac de tham khao them thi do goi la dau tham khao.

Van kien dung de tham khao goi la tai lieu. Noi mot cach khai quat thi tai lieu la mot cai gi do lien quan toi hoac chi dinh mot cai gi khac, hoac co tac dung nhu la su chap noi hoac lien ket giua hai mon do. Cac mon do do tai lieu lien ket voi nhau co the la cu the, nhu sach hoac dia diem, hoac truu tuong, nhu du kien, tu tuong, hoac tri uc. Ca mon do do tai lieu dat ten lan mon do do tai lieu chi diem deu goi la mot quy chieu.

Quy chieu la mot mon do do mot tai lieu dat ten hoac chi dinh. Dau tham khao trong tai lieu la mot quy chieu. Noi tham khao do dau tham khao dan den cung la mot quy chieu nhung thuong duoc goi la tai lieu tham khao.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) la mot triet gia, mot nha kinh te chinh tri va cung la thanh vien cua quoc hoi nuoc Anh. Ông ta la mot nha tu tuong phong khoang co the luc cua the ky thu 19.

 

Su phan biet giua nghia rong (connotation) va bieu thi (denotation)thuong co lien quan toi triet gia John Stuart Mill, du cho no la gia hon nhieu. Su phan biet nay nham de phan chieu su khac biet trong cach mot ten chung co duoc day y nghia ra sao. Nghia rong cua mot ten thuoc tinh hoac cac thuoc tinh do cai ten do ngu y. Bieu thi cua mot ten la bat cu vat the nao ma cai ten do ap dung vao.

Bieu thi nhu trong tho la chu y theo nghia den cua mot tu, va nghia rong la chu y goi cam cua mot tu. Cho thi du, cum tu “thanh pho” co quan he mat thiet voi cac thuoc tinh nhu su to lon, su dong dan. No bieu hien cac vat the ca biet nhu Ha Noi va Hue.

Tin hieu hoc la truy cuu ve cac ky hieu va cac ky tu, ca hai mot cach rieng le hoac duoc cho vao nhom trong cac he thong dau hieu. No ke ca truy cuu ve cach y nghia duoc kien thiet va thau hieu.

Ngu nghia hoc (semantics) noi ve cac khia canh cua chu y duoc dien dat trong mot ngon ngu, van ma, hoac su dai dien co dang khac cua thong tin. Ngu nghia hoc tuong phan voi hai khia canh khac cua bieu thuc co y nghia, ay la, cu phap (syntax), su xay dung cac ky hieu phuc tap tu cac ky hieu don gian hon, va dung hoc (pragmatics), viec cac tac nhan phien dich hoac cac cong dong phien dich su dung thuc nghiem cac ky hieu, cu the la nhung hoan canh va nhung van canh. Do quy uoc thuong le goi mot truy cuu hoac ly thuyet bang ten chu de cua no, ngu nghia hoc co the cung bieu hien truy cuu ly thuyet ve y nghia trong cac he thong co cac ky hieu.

Mac du thuat ngu he bo dung doi moi, nhung nguoi viet ve de tai y nghia noi chung cong nhan hai loai chu y ma mot bieu thuc day y nghia co duoc: (1) lien he ma mot dau hieu co voi cac vat the va cac tinh huong vat the, thuc co hoac kha thi, va (2) lien he ma mot dau hieu co doi voi cac dau hieu khac, dac biet nhat la nhung loai ky hieu tri tue duoc hinh thanh trong oc nhu la cac quan niem.

Phan nhieu cac nha ly thuyet tra cuu lien he giua mot dau hieu va cac vat the cua no, bao gio cung tinh luon ca bat cu bo dang nao cua tham khao muc tieu, nhu bieu thi cua no. Vai nha ly thuyet tra cuu lien he giua mot dau hieu va cac dau hieu phuc vu trong su phien dich thuc nghiem cua no nhu nghia rong cua no, nhung co nhieu quan diem va phan ly khac biet hon ve ly thuyet lam ra cho truong hop nay. Nhieu nha ly thuyet, nhat la trong truyen thong co hinh thuc ve ngu nghia, thuc dung, va tin hieu hoc, han che ung dung do cua ngu nghia hoc vao khia canh bieu thi, dung nhung thuat ngu khac hoac hoan toan bo qua khia canh nghia rong.

Trong viec dung may tinh, mot giao thuc (protocol) la mot quy uoc hoac tieu chuan dung de dieu khien hoac lam cho co kha nang chap noi, truyen thong, va chuyen doi du lieu giua hai dau day dung may tinh. Trong dang don gian nhat cua no, mot giao thuc co the duoc dinh nghia nhu la quy tac cam quyen cu phap, ngu nghia hoc, va viec dong bo hoa cua su truyen thong. Cac giao thuc co the duoc thuc hien day du bang kim khi (thiet bi), phan mem, hoac mot su phoi hop cua ca hai. Ở muc do thap nhat, mot giao thuc dinh nghia hanh vi cua mot su chap noi kim khi.

Phan lon sieu van ban (hypertext) thuong noi ve van ban tren mot may tinh dan nguoi dung toi mot van ban khac, lien he thong tin qua nhu cau. Sieu van ban tuong doi gan day tuong trung mot su cach tan cho viec giao tiep nguoi dung, vuot qua duoc vai han che cua van ban qua giay to. Sieu van ban lam kha thi mot to chuc dong cho thong tin qua nhung lien ket va cac chap noi goi la nhung sieu lien ket chu khong phai yen tinh nhu van ban truyen thong. Sieu van ban co the duoc thiet ke de trinh dien cac cong viec khac nhau; chang han khi nguoi dung “nhap chuot” vao no hoac cho du tieu (con tro) “troi lo lung” qua phia tren no, mot bong bong voi mot dinh nghia tu ngu co the xuat hien, hoac mot trang web ve mot chu the quan he co the duoc tai vao, hoac mot kep hinh dong truyen hinh co the chay, hoac mot ung dung phan mem co the khoi dong.

Mot sieu lien ket (hyperlink) thuong duoc goi don gian la mot lien ket (link) hoac, noi nom na, duong dan, la mot tham khao hoac phan tu hang hai trong mot van kien toi doan khac trong cung mot van kien, mot van kien khac, hoac mot doan nhat dinh cua mot van kien khac, ma tu dong dem thong tin duoc gioi thieu toi nguoi dung khi phan tu hang hai do duoc nguoi dung tuyen chon qua tac dong ban phim hoac thiet bi con chuot. Cu nhu vay thi no tuong tu nhu mot tuyen khai hoac trich dan trong tac pham van hoc, nhung voi phan biet cua viec truy cap lap tuc mot cach tu dong. Hop lai voi mot mang luoi du lieu va giao thuc truy cap thich hop, mot may tinh co the duoc ra chi thi tim dem ve cho duoc tai nguyen da duoc tham khao.

Dau danh (markup) la bat cu cai gi ca dung de cong them vao noi dung van kien nham mieu ta van ban trong do. Mot ngon ngu danh dau (markup language) ket hop van ban va thong tin phu thuoc noi ve van ban do. Thong tin phu, cho thi du cho biet ve cau truc hoac cach trung bay van ban, duoc dien dat bang cach dung dau danh, tra tron voi van ban so cap.

Vi du, van ban so cap co the la mot cau van nhu sau:

Chung toi la tai nguyen ngoai bo xa khoi cho mot cuong quoc.

Toi co the cho moi nguoi biet toi muon cho tu nao co mau do, mau lam va tu nao viet dam, viet nghien bang cach danh dau nhu sau:

Chung toi la [mau=lam]tai nguyen[/mau] [n]ngoai bo[/n] [mau=nau]xa khoi[/mau] cho [x][mau=do]nhieu[/mau][/x] [d][mau=luc]mot[/mau][/d] cuong quoc.

Dong chu bao gom van ban so cap va nhung dau danh cho biet them thong tin ve van ban so cap goi chung la van ma. Nhung ky hieu nhu [d] (bat dau viet dam) va [n] (bat dau viet nghien) goi chung la mot dau the lenh. Nhung ky hieu nhu [/d] (het viet dam) va [/n] (het viet nghien) goi chung la mot duoi the lenh. The lenh [dv] (bat dau doan van) khong can phai co duoi theo sau chot trong van ma nhung da so cac the lenh can phai co dau duoi cho may tinh biet se ap dung chi thi cua the lenh vao phan nao cua van ban so cap.

Khi cho van ma trong o tim tren day vao Bang viet nhap hoac noi dung noi khac trong he web ta (danhthieptoi.com) thi se co ket qua nhu sau:

Chung toi la tai nguyen ngoai bo xa khoi cho nhieu mot cuong quoc.

Nhung dau danh trong van ma tren day duoc viet theo cu phap cua ngon ngu danh dau cho moi truong tap su goi giao (TSGGML: Tap Su Goi Giao Markup Language). TSGGML con goi la van ma web ta. Muc dich cua van ma web ta la de cho nhieu nguoi co moi truong va phuong thuc tap su, thuc tap mot cach co he thong hoc cach goi giao, giao tiep lau dai voi nhieu thanh vien trong cung mot xa hoi web chua dung mot khoi luong thong tin phuc tap rieng chung ngoai tam tuong tuong cua vai the he truoc.

Khi muon dung van ma web ta dem hinh dong truyen hinh vao thi lam nhu cho thay trong vi du nay:

[hinhdong web=http://www.youtube.com/v/kevh74Oe46E]

Ket qua se la nhu sau:

Nhap chuot vao giua hinh dong truyen hinh tren day hai lan xem phim truoc khi doc tiep.

HTML viet tat cho Hypertext Markup Language (ngon ngu danh dau sieu van ban). HTML la ngon ngu danh dau troi hon han cho viec sang tao cac trang web. No chu cap mot phuong tien dien ta cau truc thong tin dua tren van ban trong mot van kien — bang cach bieu hien phan nao cua van ban la nhung tua van ban, nhung doan van, cac danh sach, va nhieu thu khac nhu the — va bo tro van ban do voi cac mau don tuong tac, hinh anh nam luon o ben trong van ban, va cac vat the khac. HTML la duoc viet thanh van ban duoi dang nhung nhan hieu goi la nhung the lenh, bi bao vay voi cac dau hieu nho hon (<) va lon hon (>). HTML cung co the dien ta duoc o mot muc do nao do dang dieu va ngu nghia cua mot van kien, va co the bao gom ca van ma ngon ngu ra ma nam luon o ben trong nham co kha nang anh huong hanh vi nhung trinh duyet web va nhung chuong trinh phan mem xu ly HTML khac.

Tim Berners-Lee

 

 

Robert Cailliau

 

Trong khi lam mot nha thau doc lap o CERN tu thang 6 toi thang 12 nam 1980, Berners-Lee de xuat mot du an co co so tren quan niem sieu van ban, de lam thuan tien viec chia se va cap nhat thong tin giua cac nha nghien cuu. Trong luc o do ong ta duoc xay mot he thong nguyen mau ten la ENQUIRE. Sau khi roi khoi CERN nam 1980 ong de di lam o cong ty TNHH Image Computer Systems cua ong John Poole, ong ta tro lai nam 1984 lam mot nghien cuu sinh (fellow). Vao nam 1989 CERN la giao diem mang web toan cau to lon nhat o Âu Chau, va Berners-Lee thay mot thoi co de noi khai niem sieu van ban voi khai niem mang web toan cau. Ông ta viet de an vao thang ba 1989, va trong nam 1990, voi tro giup cua Robert cailliau, da cho ra mot phien ban moi va duoc sep ong Mike Sendall chap nhan. Ông dung cac y kien tuong tu voi nhung cai co ban cua he thong ENQUIRE de tao lap mang web quoc te. Ông da thiet ke va xay dung trinh duyet web dau tien cung nhu phan mem chu but (editor) dau tien cho no.

Hau het tat ca cac trang web tren the gioi deu dung van ma theo cu phap tieu chuan HTML de cho trinh duyet web trong may khach biet cach tac gia muon hien thi van kien tren man hinh. Doc gia thuong co the xem xet van ma HTML, nhu co cho thay trong video (hinh dong truyen hinh) tren day, bang cach chon menh lenh View > Source (Xem > Ma nguon) cua trinh duyet web. Van ma HTML dua tren cac the lenh tieng Anh nen se kho hieu hon van ma web ta (TSGGML).

Van ma HTML duoi day cho thay cach HTML thuc hien van ma TSGGML trong vi du truoc day:

Chung toi la (<)font color=blue>tai nguyen(<)/font>[/mau] (<)i>ngoai bo(<)/i>[/n] (<)font color=brown>xa khoi(<)/font>[/mau] cho (<)s>(<)font color=red>nhieu(<)/font>(<)/s> (<)b>(<)font color=green>mot(<)/font>(<)/b> cuong quoc.

Dau mo va dong ngoac cho vao de ngan chan khong cho may khac thuc thi chi thi cua cac the lenh HTML vi du nhu b (bold: bat dau viet dam) va i (italic: bat dau viet nghien). Neu lay het cac trang tri va dau ngoac ra nhung cho o trong vao ke sau cac ky tu it hon (<) de, mot lan nua, khong cho may khac xu ly HTML, thi ta co van ma sau day:

Chung toi la < font color=blue>tai nguyen< /font> < i>ngoai bo< /i> < font color=brown>xa khoi< /font> cho < s>< font color=red>nhieu< /font>< /s> < b>< font color=green>mot< /font>< /b> cuong quoc.

Lay het cac o trong ke sau dau it hon thi se co ket qua nhu sau:

Chung toi la tai nguyen ngoai bo xa khoi cho nhieu mot cuong quoc.

Dia chi web nay se dan ban den tai lieu tham khao cho biet cac the lenh dung trong van ma web ta: tsggml.danhthieptoi.com. Vao Google tim “html syntax reference” (tai lieu cu phap HTML).

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